Significance of establishing rapid neutralizing antibody and detection strategy of neutralizing antibody of COVID-19

Immunity is the ability of human body to resist infection by infection or artificial vaccination. Vaccines simulate the invasion of pathogens and induce immune response after entering the human body, which promotes the immune system to produce protective antibodies. The traditional method of vaccine evaluation is to use live virus to verify the efficacy of neutralizing antibody through neutralization test. This method is complex, time-consuming and high-risk, which brings great inconvenience to the large-scale evaluation of the effect of vaccination. Therefore, it is of great significance to establish a method for rapid detection of neutralizing antibodies.

Based on the characteristics of neutralizing antibody combined with COVID-19 and virus infecting mechanism, there are two strategies for rapid neutralizing antibody detection.

One is the double antigen sandwich method which specifically combines s-rbd with neutralizing antibody. This method only uses s-rbd as antigen to detect total neutralizing antibody, including IgG, IgM, IgA total antibody against s-rbd neutralizing epitope. Its sensitivity and specificity are higher than that of single detection of IgG or IgM.

The other is competitive strategy, that is to use the s-rbd protein and ACE2 protein expressed by genetic engineering technology to simulate the virus binding to the receptor on natural cells. If the neutralizing antibody detected will inhibit the binding of the two proteins.

Post time: Jul-06-2021